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Gita : Ch-12. Introduction-1.


Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-12. ( Bhakti-yogam)


In the previous chapter the Supreme Lord Krishna, the possessor of all divine attributes as well as countless exalted qualities such as an ocean of mercy, compassion, affability, omniscience etc. and the source of all avatars or incarnations and expansions, being the ultimate object of worship to all who aspire for the path of bhakti or exclusive loving devotion unto the Supreme Lord Krishna; revealed His unlimited sovereign power of universal dominion in the form of His visvarupa or divine universal form after being requested by His devotee Arjuna.

It has also been established that uninterrupted profound, sublime bhakti alone without cessation is the only possible way to realise the Supreme Lord in His ultimate nature and experience communion with Him.

Now in this chapter the following three realities will be examined. 1) The inherent superiority of an aspirant performing bhakti involving meditation directly upon the Supreme Lord Himself as compared to meditation upon the atma or the eternal soul which only leads to atma tattva or realisation of the soul in order to attain the ultimate goal of all existence. This superiority of bhakti is measured in terms of absolute fulfilment of the ultimate goal and in the sublime felicity and bliss of performance.

Bhakti or love of God is considered the fifth purusharthas above the other four ambitions of humans beings which are : -

1. Dharma or righteousness which consists of two parts first being the regular performance of Vedic activities and the second being performing actions which benefit all living entities such as freely providing fresh water and salt to all and protecting against all demoniac influences whenever they appear.

2. Artha or the righteous acquirement of wealth according to the Vedic scriptures without usury or deception.

3. Kama or enjoyment and pleasure in the material existence following the Vedic scriptures without perversion or degradation.

4. Moksa or liberation from material existence by atma tattva or liberation from material existence by bhakti realising the Supreme Lord direct.

It should be noted that atma tattva is automatically an inherent part of bhakti and thus those blessed living entities who perform bhakti to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised avatars do not have to make any separate or special effort to achieve this.

2) The method of realising the Supreme Lord will be given in slokam two.

3) The aksaram or abstract, impersonal unmanifest path examined in verses 3,4,5 is applicable for those who are inept and unqualified. This ineptitude and lack of qualification is due to the absence of humbly approaching a spiritual master from one of the four authorised Vaisnava sampradaya's or empowerd lines of disciplic succession and after being accepted by him and initiated being taught the fundamentals of bhakti.

The superiority of bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna is made manifest by the superiority of He, Himself being the object of such loving devotion. This maxim of superiority was briefly stated by Lord Krishna in chapter - six,  slokam - 47 where He states : Those with firm faith in the Vedic scriptures describing super-excellent devotion to Him and with hearts full of love dedicate all their actions to Him are yuktatamah the most superior of all.

The words satata-yuktah meaning always engaged denotes ever devout towards the Supreme Lord being ever intent on communion with Him which is continuing the sentiments of the last slokam, in chapter - 11. The words tvam paryupasate means direct worship of Lord Krishna and refers to deeming the Supreme Lord as the complete fulfilment of one's every ambition and desire. The Supreme Lord, the perfect, infallible one, the Sovereign Lord of all creation and the refuge of all cosmic glories, possessing unlimited attributes of exalted qualities such as divinity, omniscience, compassion, omnipotence, etc. Such ones are thy eternal adorers and always your beloved.

Those other votaries are the worshippers of the abstract, impersonal, avyaktam or unmanifest and imperceptible. which is aksaram or imperishable. Such also reflect and contemplate upon the nature of the pratyagatma or individual soul which is imperishable also as well as being unmanifest in as much as it is indiscernible by the mind and imperceptible to any of the senses such as the eye or ear, etc.

Of these two classes of aspirants which one is superior and most suitable for performing yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Inferring which one would achieve their respective goals most expediently. In verse seven Lord Krishna gives the definitive reply in answer to this query by succinctly revealing the most expeditious way to attain the ultimate goal.

Next : Introduction  to be continued  ...



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Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …