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Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-8.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-8.


In  third  and  fourth  chapters the  details  of  'Yajnam'  explained;  in  sixth  chapter  Lord  is  about  to  explain  'Dyanam'.

Therefore,  the  chapter  in  between  i.e,  fifth,  the  name  given   "Karmasanyasayogam"   is  very  suitable.

What  is  the  true  'Sanyasam;'   how  to  follow  'Karma-sanyasam;'     in  what  way  these  things  help  Sadhka-s;  these  things  are  analysed  in  this  fifth  chapter.

It  is  a  bridge  between  from  the  field  of  'Karmam' to  the  field  of  'Dyanam'.

That  is,  this  is  a  link  between  "Karmam  and  Dyanam."

This  type  of  relationship  is  not  clearly  seen  Veda-s,  this  is  all  about  that  in  Gita.

Because  of  this,  it  is  not  to  be  understood  that  this  is  a  new  creation  of  Gita.

Gita  brings  out  the  light  of  'Vichara- flow,  which  is  hidden  in  the …

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-7.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-7.


After  explaining  about  Siddha-Purushan  (of  'Sthita-pragjnan' )  who  attained  his  Supreme  Goal,  in  the  second  chapter,  in  third  and  fourth  chapters,  Lord  explained  in  detail  of  the  secrets  of  Karmam.


Karmam  if  done  with  complete  and  full  'Vivekam' (  intelligently ),  That  person  can  surely  attain '" Parama-Padham"  ( Divine-Abode ).

If  one  desires  to  become  scientist,  or  doctor,  or  engineer,  or  lawyer,  and  so  on,  first  he  has  to  complete  his  primary  education  with  honest,  sincere,  and  true  success,  then  continue,  gradually  step  by  step  achieve  higher  skills  and  specialisations.


Likewise,  One,  Sadhakan,  ( he/she),  who  desires  to  attain  "Parama-Padham"  that  person  should  first  follow  the  path  of  the  form  of  'yajnam'  i.e,  "Nish-kama-karmam,"  and  latter  reac…

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-6.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-6.



However,  We  must  give  credit  to  the  strong,  deep,  tattvam  of  Gita.

A flower  should  change  into  unripe  fruit,  that  is  the  flowers' desire  /  fate / saphalyam.

In  this  prikrya  ( activity )  there  is  destruction  to  its  previous  state, i.e,  flower fades  and  drops.

We  see  an  unripe  fruit  in  place  of  flower  now.

Because  of  this  no  one  laments  about  the  destruction  and  loss  of  flower.

Flower  discarded  its  unnecessary  parts,  and  its  essence  in  the  form  of  unripe  fruit.

That  is  all.

Considering  the  above  we  can  say  that  if  Vedik  literature is  flower,  then  Gita  sastram  is  its  fruit

The  activities  or  rituals  put  forth  in  the  karma-kandam  of  Veda-s,  the  unnecessary  rituals  are  discarded,  and  the  essence  of  Veda-s,  that  is  a  complete  jivitha-sastrm ( life-science )  took  shape  in  a  text  namely,  Srimad  Bha…

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-5.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-5.


Gita  prescribes  with  few  changes  whatever  said  in  Veda-s,  on  the  procedure  and  steps  of  Sadhana.
Sri  Vedavyasa  Maharishi  during  Rishi's  period  presented  the  secrets  of  Vedik-informations  before  the  people  of  those  days  in  a  simple  way.
It  is  not  correct  to  address  this  as  a  Adhyatmic  revolution  as  criticism  by  some  so  called  self-appointed  scholars.
Revolution  is  by  discarding  or  deleting  or  destroying  old  sampradayam  / customs,  and  reinstalling  the  revolutionary  customs  in  place  of  that,  but,  hence  it  is  not  wise  to  say  that  Sri  Vyasa  Maharishi  had  done  a  revolutionary  act  as  by the  present  day  scholars  view.
To be continued  ....

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-4.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-4.


First  'Sakama-karmam',  then  'Nishkama-karmam',  lastly,  'Dyanam'  ( Meditation ) --  these  are  the  steps  of  Sadhana  to  develop  and  expand  your  'Self '  ( Atma-vikasam').


This  is  not  Sri  Vyasa Maharishi's  new  theory.

The  Vedik  theory  itself  according  to  time,  is  made  suitable and  intelligible  and  re-established  to  the  generations  only  ---  Vyasa Bhagavan  did.

It  is  found  Veda-s  are  composed  a  plan  /  method  of  Sadhana  , and  indexed,  for  the  Goal of Supreme  Perfection.

The  strength  and  beauty  of  nature  has  made  wonder  to  ancient  men,  this  is  dealt  with  in  the  department / division/chapters  of  'Mantra-s'  of  Veda-s.

The  department / division /chapters  'Brapmana'  deal  with  various  karmas  to  fulfill  desires.

Following  'Arnyakam'  deal  with  the  steps  of  sadhana  fo…

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-3.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-2.


Lord  Sri  Krishna  has  already  explained  during  discussions  with  Arjuna   on  Karmam  in  third  and  fourth  chapters  in  detail.

Hereafter,  after  following  and  practicing  them,  Sadhaka-s  should  achieve  the  Supreme Goal 'Perfection'.

Therefore,  hence  Lord  has  to  explain  the  method  to  "how  to  discard  'Karmam'  intelligently.

From  'Tamasic' and  'slumber'  it  is  essential  to  awake  human  being  and  initiate /engage  him in  Karmam.

At  least  let  him  do  karmam  for  his  selfish  needs,  if  he  proceeds  like  this  to  gain  and  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  karmam,   he  will  be  changing  from  his  'Tamo-gunam'  to  'Rajo-gunam'.

Then,  thereafter,  he  has  to  has  to  come  out  of  this  stage,  i.e,  "Sakama-karmam."

For  this  he  has  to  change  this  "Sakama-karmam"  to  "Nishkama-…

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-2.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-2.


Arjuna's  understanding  about  Karmam as  following  :

1. Yajnam,  Yagam,  Homam  are  all  come  under  ' Vaidika  Karmam'.

2. and  Sanyasam  means  total  renunciation  and  immerse  in  Tapas  in  the  forest.

Arjuna  is  well  educated  in  Sastram  and  intelligent,  still  he  has  this  misunderstanding  regarding  haindava-dharmam  during  that  yugam,   i,e.  even  this  was  the  state  of  that  ancient  days,  what  will  be  the  present yugam  "Kali".


Lord  Sri  Krishna's  effort  in  this  regard  is  to  re-establish  new  life  to  the  haidava- dharmic  samskaram  and  remove  the  all  misunderstandings.

In  this  context : we  have  seen  in  the  last  chapter  that  how  the  secretly  kept  Yajna-s,  in  the  use  of  day  to  day  life's  duties  of  human beings.

Those  days,  when  very  few  people  ( the  Bramana's )  has  the  control  on  this  va…

Gita : Ch-5. Introduction-1.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Introduction-1.


The  fifth  chapter  begins  with  a  doubt  of  Arjuna  to  Lord  Sri  Krishna.

Though  this  question ( doubt )  shows  similarity,  in  the  sense  of  the  doubts  raised  by  Arjuna  in  the  beginning  of  third  chapter,  it is  not  a  repetition.

In  the  second  chapter  when  Arjuna  heard  the  tattvam-s  explained  to  him,  by  Lord,  Arjuna  could  not  decide  and  loosing  his  balance  of  mind,  thought  that,  'is  there  any  place  for  karmam  in  spiritual  life'.

At  present  his  doubt  is : "which  one  is  best  '1. Karma-sanyasam  or 2. Karma-yogam'?

From  this  Lord  has  succeeded to  convince  Arjuna   that   to  defeat  Adharmam  and  to  establish  Dharmam  'Karmam' is  inevitable.

We  can  say  that  Arjuna  has  got  back  his  balance  of  mind  at least  by  now. Arjuna  now  understands  that  wise  karmam  is  essential   for  higher  knowledg…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-42.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-42. ( Therefore the doubts which have arisen in your heart out of ignorance should be slashed by the weapon of knowledge. Armed with yoga, OArjuna, stand and fight. )




tasmadajnanasambhutam  hrtstham  jnanasinatmanah,



chittvainam  samsayam  yogamatishthottistha  bharata.




tasmat  =  Therefore;

ajnanasambhutam  =  outcome  of  ignorance;

hrtstham  =  situated  in  the  heart;

atmanah    enam   samsayam  =  your's  this  doubt;

jnanasina   chittva  =  cutting  away  with  the  weapon namely  knowledge;

yogam  attishtha  =  practice  yoga ( meditation ),  do your duty,  follow it as yjnam;

bharata  uttishta  =  Hey  Arjuna, stand up  ( get ready to fight ).




Lord Krishna is instructing Arjuna to destroy all doubts arising from ignorance of the atma or soul and having discrimination between the soul and the body take refuge in karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities which is the means to atma tat…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-41.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )



Slokam- 41. (  Therefore, one who has renounced the fruits of his action, whose doubts are destroyed by transcendental knowledge, and who is situated firmly in the self, is not bound by karma O Arjuna. )



Yogasannyastakarmanam    jnanasanchinnasamsayam



atmavantam     na   karmani    nibadhnanti    dhananjaya.



dhananjaya  =  O Arjuna;

yoga-sannyasta-karmanam  =  renounced karma with the help of karma-yoga ( renunciation of fruits of  his karma );

jnana-sanchinna-samsayam  =  doubts are destroyed ( cleared ), with the help of Jnanam ( advancement of knowledge );

atmavantam  =  completely established in the Self ( Atmam );

karmani    na    nibadhnanti  =  is not bound by karma ( actions ).




Lord Krishna explains that the performance of karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities is the mode of action in the ways He indicated above. Dedication and renunciation means that actions are performed in jnana yoga or the cultivation of …

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-40.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :



Chaptr-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )



Slokam-40. ( But ignorant and faithless persons who doubt the revealed scriptures do not attain God consciousness. For the doubting soul there is happiness neither in this world nor in the next. )





Ajnascasraddadhanasca  samsayatma  vinasyati,



nayam  lokosti na  parah na  sukham  samsayatmanah.





ajnah  ca  asraddadhana  ca  =   fools who have no knowledge in standard scriptures  and  also  without faith in revealed scriptures;

samsayatma  =  one  has  doubts  in  each  and  everything;

vinasyati  =   totally  perishes;

samsayatmanah  =   for a  doubtful person;

ayam  lokah  =   this  world;

parah ca na  asti  =   or  paralokam  ( next),  no  place  to  exist;

sukham  na  asti  =  and happiness too  vanishes.




After explaining concisely how the person of faith acquires spiritual knowledge through the instructions of the spiritual master, Lord Krishna speaks of the miserable fate of the ignorant who are devoid of faith but in…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-39.

( Vey important slokam )

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-39. The topic in this slokam is :- { Niscitopayam  [  ( Decided/ Judged ) + ( way /trick to achieve/achieve goal ) ] }  for Jnanaarjjanam  ( achieve/ gain/earn+ Knowledge ).




sradhavaan   labate   jnanam   tatparah   samyatendriyah,


jnanam   labddva   paraam   santimacirennaadhigacchati.





tatparah   =   Interested  in  Paramatma   tattvam,

samyatendriyah   =   Control Indriyas as necessary,

sradhavaan   =   The concentated (wise ) man,

jnanam   labate   =   Achieve, Atmajnanam ( knowledge of self ).

jnanam   labddva   =   Once gained Jnanam,

acirenna   =   Without delay,

paraam   santim   =   The Supreme Peace,

adhigachati   =   ( is ) Attained.




If one ( seeker ) wants to gain Atmajnanam, necessary three gunas ( qualities / characters  ) for those Sadhakas (seekers)  : told in this slokam. Those seekers who think that their sadhana is the sincere and honest, still do not reach the target ( a…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-38.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-38. ( In this world, there is nothing so sublime and pure as transcendental knowledge. Such knowledge is the mature fruit of all mysticism. And one who has achieved this enjoys the self within himself in due course of time. )



na hi  jnanena  sadrsam  pavitramiha  vidyate,



tatsvayam  yogasamsiddhah  kalenatmani  vindati.





jnanena  sadrsam  pavitram  =   with  knowledge  in  comparison  (equal to)  sanctified  ( pure );

iha  na  vidyate  hi  =  certainly  here  (in this world)  nothing  exists;

yogasamsiddhah  =  one  reached  maturity  in  yogam  (devotion);

tat  kalena  =  that  (jnanam)  in the  course  of  time;

atmani  svayam  vindati  =  in  himself  itself  shines.




In this world nothing is as purifying as spiritual knowledge. Then why is not everyone pursuing this? Lord Krishna explains that first one must become qualified from prolonged practice of karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities performed without d…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-37.

( Very important slokam )


Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-37. ( As the blazing fire turns firewood to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge burn to ashes all reactions to material activities )



yathaidhamsi  samiddhognihbhasmasatkuruterjuna,

jnanagnih  sarvakarmani  bhasmasatkurute  tatha.



samiddhah  agniah  =  blazing  fire;
edhamsi  =  burns  firewood;
yatha  bhasmasat kurute  =  just turns  into  ashes;
tatha  jnanagnih Arjuna  =  similarly,  Arjuna the  fire of  knowledge;
sarvakarmani  =  all reactions to material activities;
bhasmasat kurute  =  it so  does  into  ashes.


Lord Krishna uses this illustration citing the complete eradication of all sins and their destruction to further emphasise the potency of spiritual knowledge.

To remove any doubt or misconceptions that might arise from the previous verse that sins may be crossed over but not absolved Lord Krishna gives the illustration that fire of spiritual knowledge as revealed i…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-36.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-36. ( Even if you are considered to be the most sinful of all sinners, when you are situated in the boat of transcendental knowledge, you will be able to cross over the ocean of miseries. )




Api  cedasi  papebhyah  sarvebhyah  papakrttamah,



sarvam  jnanaplavenaiva   vrjinam  santarishyasi.




sarvebhyah  papebhyah  =  of  all  sinners;

papakrttamah  =  the  greatest  sinner;

asi  cet  api  =  even  if  you  are;

sarvam  vrjinam  =  all  such sinful  actions ( the ocean  of  miseries);

 jnanaplavena  eva  =  with  the  of  boat  jnanam  (of  transcendental knowledge);

santarishyasi  =  you will  cross  (the ocean  of  miseries)  completely .




Lord Krishna now exclaims that even if one was an incorrigible sinner previously if they approach a self-realised being and receive this knowledge from him they will easily cross over the ocean of all their sins solely by the potency of this spiritual knowledge.

Understand the grea…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-35.

Srimad Bhagavad-GIta :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam : 35. ( And when you have thus learned the truth, you will know that all living beings are but part of Me—and that they are in Me, and are Mine.)




yajjnatva  na  punarmohamevam  yasyasi  pandava,



yena  bhutanyaseshena  drakshyasyatmanyatho  mayi.




pandava   =  O, Arjuna;

yatjnatva  =   if  gained   the  jnanam  explained  so  far;

punah  evam   =   again  you  lika this;

moham  na  yasyasi   =  never  fall  in  the illusion ( moham);

yena  =  in  that  consciousness;

bhutani  aseshena   =   totally  all  living  entities;

atmani  atha  =  in  his  own  ( jiva )  atma, in  other  words;

mayi drakshyasi  =  you  will  see  in  me  (in  Paramatma  too).




Lord Krishna now reveals the results of spiritual knowledge that came by inquiring from a self-realised being and that is one will never again be deluded by the illusionary energy thinking that friends and relatives can actually cease to exist. By this spiritual knowle…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-34.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :



Chapter- 4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )



Slokam- 34. (  Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth. )




tadviddhi  pranipatena  pariprasnena  sevaya,



upadekshyanti  te  jnanam  jnaninastattvadarsinah.




pranipatena  =  by  namaskaram  (obedience  and  head  down);

pariprasnena  =  by  submissive  inquiries ;

sevaya  =  by  the  rendering  service ;

tat  viddhi  =  gain  that  knowledge;

tattvadarsinah  jnaninah  =  the  self-realized  seers  of   truth;  

te  jnanam  upadekshyanti  =  guide  you  towards   jnanam.





As to the answer to the question by what means is this spiritual knowledge available Lord Krishna is revealing how to attain this knowledge which is altogether different from actions that bestow material rewards. He instructs everyone to fall at the feet of a self-realised beings rendering servi…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-33.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )



Slokam-33. ( O Arjuna, the sacrifice of knowledge is greater than the sacrifice of material possessions. O Partha, after all, the sacrifice of action culminates in transcendental knowledge. )


Sreyan  dravyamayadyajnajjnanayajnah  parantapa,



sarvam  karmakhilam  partha  jnane  parisamapyate.



parantapa   =  O   Arjuna;

dravya-mayad-yajnaj  =  more  than  the  yajna  of  material  possessions;

jnana-yajnah  sreyan  =   yajna  of  knowledge  is  superior;

sarvam  karma  akhilam  =  all  actions  are  in  totality  complete,  full;

 jnane  parisamapyate  =  and  ends  in  knowledge.



Here the superiority of yagnas or offerings of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord performed in jnana yoga or in the cultivation of Vedic knowledge is being explained by Lord Krishna. The yagna accomplished by knowledge is superior to the yagna performed by material ingredients for the yagna performed in knowledge is accomplished by no other au…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-32.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :



Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )



Slokam -32. ( All these different types of sacrifice are approved by the Vedas, and all of them are born of different types of work. Knowing them as such, you will become liberated.)



Evam  bahuvidha  yajna  vitata  brahmano  mukhe,



karmajan  viddhi tan  sarvan  evam  jnatva  vimokshyase.




evam  bahu-vidha  yajnah  =  this   way  many   types  of   yajna-s;

brahmano  mukhe  vitatah  =  various  ways   to  attain  brahmam   mentioned  in  detail  in the Vedam;

tan  sarvan  =  all  of  them;

karma-jan  viddhi  =  born  of   karmam  you  should  know;

evam  jnatva  =  if  knowing  thus  (this)  and   followed;

vimokshyase  =  you  will  be  liberated   from  bondage of karmam.



Lord Krishna confirms the authenticity of the previous described yagnas or offerings of worship as being sanctioned by the Vedic scriptures by the word evam meaning of this kind and the different types have been explained in detail in the parampara or …

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-31.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-31.



yajnasishtamrtabhujo  yanti brahma sanatanam,



nayam  lokostyayajnasya  kutonyah  kurusattama.




yajna  sishtamrta   bhujh  =  those  who  take  in   (eat )  the  remnants   of  such  yajna  as  nector;

sanatanam  brahma  yanti  =  do  obtain  the  Supreme  Eternal  position;

kuru  sattama  =  O  Arjuna  the  best  among  Kurus ( Kuru  dynasity );

ayajnasya   =  one  who   does  not   perform  yajna;

ayam  lokah  nasti  =  this  world  is  not  for  him;

anyah  kutah  =  where  any  other  worlds  thereafter.



Before Lord Krishna spoke of the merits of performing yagna or offerings of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord. Now He will speak of the demerits accrued by failure to perform yagna. The key word is ayagnasya which means for one who does not perform yagna. Without performing yagna in one of the 12 previously mentioned ways then even the meager joys of this world are not available. If the pleasure of mort…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-30.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-30. (  Some of them, curtailing the eating process, offer the outgoing breath into itself, as a sacrifice.  All these performers who know the meaning of sacrifice become cleansed of sinful reaction. )



Apare  niyataharah  pranan   praneshu   juhvati,



sarvepyete  yajnavido  yajnakshapitakalmashah.




apare  niyataharah  =  some  others  controlling  intake  of  food;

pranan  praneshu  juhvati  =  offer the  outgoing (exhaling)  breath   into  itself,  as a sacrifice;

yete  sarve  api  =  all  these  people;

yajna-vidah  =  having  known  the  yajna  tattvam;

yajna-kshapita-kalmashah  =  being cleansed of the result of such performances  ( sacrifices ) sinful reactions.




Now Lord Krishna is confirming the result accruing to the 12 previously mentioned yagnas or offering of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord who have accomplished this and that they have purified themselves having absolved all their sins by yagna.

Comm…

Gita : Ch-4. Sl-29.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :


Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )


Slokam-29. (  And there are even others who are inclined to the process of breath restraint to remain in trance, and they practice stopping the movement of the outgoing breath into the incoming, and incoming breath into the outgoing, and thus at last remain in trance, stopping all breathing. Some of them, curtailing the eating process, offer the outgoing breath into itself, as a sacrifice. )



Apane  juhvati  pranam  pranepanam  tathapare,



prnapanagati  ruddhva  pranayamaparayanah.




pranayama-parayanah  =  iterested  in  pranayamam;

apare  =  some  others;

prnapana-gati  =  regulation  of  the  breathing;

ruddhva  = having  controled;

pranam  apane  =  the  air  going  outward   taken  again  inward;

tatha  apanam   prane  =   and  thereafter  inhaled  air  is released  outward ;

juhvati  =  carry  sacrifice.  




Continuing Lord Krishna explains that others who are devoted to pranayama or regulation of the breath offer the p…

Gita : Ch-4. Slo-28.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :



Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )



Slokam-28. (  There are others who, enlightened by sacrificing their material possessions in severe austerities, take strict vows and practice the yoga of eightfold mysticism, and others study the Vedas for the advancement of transcendental knowledge. )



Dravyayajnastapoyajna   yogayajnastathapare,



svadhyayajnanayajnasca   yatayah  samsitavratah.




tatha  apare  =  apart  from  these;

dravya-yajnah  =  sacrificing  one's  possessions;

tapo-yajnah  =  sacrifice  in  austerities;

yoga-yajnah  =  sacrifice  in  eightfold  mysticism;

svadhyaya-jnana-yajnah  =  sacrifice in the study of  the scriptures and  also sacrifice in  advancement of transcendental   knowledge;

samsita-vratah  =  taken  to  strict  vows;

yatayah  =  enlightened.



Here Lord Krishna reveals others who earn money honestly and donate funds to qualified Vaisnavas and Brahmins to perform yagna or offering of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord. They also …