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Gita : Ch-11. Slo-22.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-11. (Visvarupa-darsana-yogam)

Slokam-22. ( The different manifestations of Lord Siva, the Adityas, the Vasus, the Sadhyas, the Visvadevas, the two Asvins, the Maruts, the forefathers and the Gandharvas, the Yakshas, Asuras, and all perfected demigods are beholding You in wonder.)

rudraditya  vasavo  ye  ca  sadhyah

visvesvinau  marutascoshmapasca,


vikshante  tvam  vismitascaiva  sarve.

rudra  adityah  vasavah  =  manifestations of Lord Siva,  the  Adityas,  the  Vasus;

sadhyah  visve  =  the Sadhyas  and  the  Visvadevas;

asvinau  marutah  =  the  Asvinikumaras  and  the  Maruts   ( Wind );

ushmapah  =  the forefathers;

 gandharva  yaksha  asura  =  the  Gandharvas,  the  Yakshas  and  the  demons;

siddha  samghah  =  Siddhas,  the  whole  groups;

ca  ye  =  likewise,  who  ever  there;

sarva  ca  eva  =  all  of  themm;

visvamitah  =  completely  stunned  in  wonder;

tvam  vikshante  =  are  looking  at  you.

The names of various groups of demigods such as Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Maruts, Gandharvas, etc. are all looking aghast at the terrifying splendour of Lord Krishna's visvarupa or divine universal form.

The word cosmopas being those who imbibe the aroma of the food which is Vedically offered and eaten refers to the group of pitris or manes which are one's own forefathers and ancestors.

The Manu Samhita III. CCXXXVII states : - the pitris partake of the aroma of food as long as it is hot, as long as the guests eat silently without speaking and as long as the host has not requested to know how good the food was.

The cosmapas equals ca and usmapah meaning the forefathers which belong to group of beings known as the pitris or the deified ancestors.

The Taittirya Upanisad I.X beginning usma-bhagahi pitarah meaning the forefathers belong to the deified ancestors confirms this.

Manu Samhita CCLXXXIV states : - that the deceased fathers are called Vasus, the deceased grandfathers are called Rudras and the deceased great-grandfathers are called Adityas.

Among the various groups of demigods what is named cosmpas equals ca and usmapah the forefathers.

The Taittriya Upanisad confirms that the usmapas are part of the pitris or deified ancestors.

The Manu Samhita III.CCXXXVII states : -

The pitris partake of the food that is Vedically offered as long as the food remains hot, the guests remain silent while eating and the host has not requested to know the virtues of the food tasted..

To be continued  ...


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …