Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-2. ( Samkya-yogam )
Slokam-39.( Lord tells further.... : Thus far I have declared to you the analytical knowledge of samkya philosophy. Now listen to the knowledge of yoga whereby one works without fruitive result. O Arjuna, when you act by such intelligence, you can free yourself from the bondage of works. )
Esha tebhihita samkhye buddhiryoge tvimam srannu,
Buddhya yukto yaya partha karmabandham prahasyasi.
partha! te abhihita esha = Arjuna! unto you advised this;
samkye bhuddhih = knowledge according to analytical study; ( theory of Samkya )
yoge tu imam srannu = just listen the jnanam according to karma-yogam;
yaya buddhya yuktah = knowing this intelligently;
karma-bhandham prahasyasi = you can come out from bondage.
Of course, atheistic samkya-yogam has nothing to do with bhakti-yoga, yet the unintelligent claim that the atheistic samkya-yogam is referred to in the Bhagavad-gita.
One should therefore understand that buddhi-yogam means to work in Krishna consciousness, in the full bliss and knowledge of devotional service. One who works for the satisfaction of the Lord only, however difficult such work may be, is working under the principles of buddhi-yoga and finds himself always in transcendental bliss. By such transcendental engagement, one achieves all transcendental qualities automatically, by the grace of the Lord, and thus his liberation is complete in itself, without his making extraneous endeavors to acquire knowledge. There is much difference between work in Krishna consciousness and work for fruitive results, especially in the matter of sense gratification for achieving results in terms of family or material happiness. Buddhi-yoga is therefore the transcendental quality of the work that we perform.
Having instructed the true knowledge of the soul as being distinctly different from the physical body and seeing that this knowledge has still not been firmly embedded in Arjunas heart, Lord Krishna reiterates this truth again in order to illustrate that this knowledge never becomes firmly embedded without practice of the means which is yoga. To do this He introduces the yoga path of selfless actions as the means to this end. Thus the reality is to perform all actions under the direction of ones mind well cultivated by the aid of spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures exclusively. Although this spiritual knowledge is scientific Arjuna is still unsteady in its application due to lack of practice in assimilation. So Lord Krishna explains that by practice in the performance of actions by the renunciation of their rewards Arjuna will be completely freed from transmigration in the material existence.
A brief introduction as to the correct understanding concerning the eternality of the immortal soul that has just been described is now concluded and the path of actions known as karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness is now being introduced.
That by which the nature of reality is determined is deemed as sankhya which is analytical knowledge and that by which the nature of the eternal soul is revealed is also sankhya. The proper understanding one must utilise in respect to this has just been imparted to Arjuna. If in spite of all these unequivocal instructions regarding the nature of the eternal soul one is still unable to realise it then one should with determination seek to realise the eternal soul by the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions without any hankering for fruitive rewards. This will allow a living entity to attain purity of mind and spiritual intelligence. By the manifestation of spiritual intelligence one will understand how to surrender all actions in righteousness to the Supreme Lord. The cessation of seeking and yearning for fruitive results effectively neutralises any fruitive reactions before they even materialise. Since it is ones own fruitive desires that causes fruitive actions and subsequent reactions, by renouncing the desire for any fruitive results and performing actions as a matter of duty a living entity is automatically freed from any fruitive reactions.
The wisdom of sankhya being the ability to understand the distinction of spirit from matter leads to the realisation of the eternal soul and is in essence the sankhya philosophy has been given in smriti. The yoga method of the individual consciousness perceiving and then subsequently attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness and the accompanying state which manifests has been revealed in the Bhagavad Purana. Other than these nothing else has been referred to as the sankhya philosophy or the science of yoga ; but in other contexts the word karma yoga has been used and along with Pancaratra has been named as a method for liberation.
In the Vedic scriptures there is always a holistic understanding and comprehensive appreciation present, thus there is no contradiction unless one is in possession of faulty perceptions. It is sometimes seen that due to partial understanding an incorrect interpretation is made due to not acquiring sufficient knowledge. In the Citra Shikhandi Sastra the similarity between Pancaratra and the Vedas has been well documented. Also in all cases the sankhya philosophy and the science of yoga have been similarly described as methods for liberation from the material existence. This is quite proper because spiritual knowledge is the only means of salvation and various methods have been delineated in the Vedic scriptures regarding this. If attainment of salvation can become known by any method than that in itself is spiritual knowledge. By whatever way the sankhya system comes to be known that is the distinction of spirit from matter by that way it has been explained.
Equal importance is also given to both jnana knowledge and sankhya. By yoga both these 2 become united; therefore yoga is the means. Seekers of truth have determined that yoga is the precursor to sankhya as given in the Sabda Nirnaya.
Brahma Tarka is a dialectical method propounded by Vishnu incarnation Kapiladeva in his discourse to Devahuti on the original sankhya philosophy which is fully theist in the Bhagavat Purana. The nyaya philosophy of Gautama, the vaisesika philosophy of Kanada and the imitation sankhya philosophy which is athiestic of Kapila Muni are all but dialectical arguments not dialectical methods for attaining the Ultimate Truth. Mayavadi and Pasupata doctrines are considered profane. The mimamsaka philosophy of Jaimini is threefold concerning rituals, brahman and the Supreme Lord. The original sankhya philosophy of Kapiladeva and the mimamsaka of Jaimini are both dialectical methods for the Ultimate Truth. The perfect wisdom of the Vedic scriptures is the only complete source of spiritual knowledge. Those who have realised this eternal truth do not follow anything else. Other philosophies such as tantra or even the astanga yoga system of Pantanjali should not be followed according to the Narada Purana.
The atheist sankhya philosophy as has been stated earlier is a dialectical argument but here in Bhagavad-Gita it is being explained in its original theistic ontology as a dialectical method. The original sankhya philosophy as well as the astanga yoga system both declare that killing causes undesirable reactions.
In the Bhagavad-Gita war is recommended as desirable for upholding dharma or righteousness and in this way according to prescribed duties of a ksatriya is a means for salvation when it is said karma bandham prahasyasi. So it should be understood in this light and there should be no discrepancy between what has been intended in the original sankhya philosophy or the astanga yoga system and what has been related in Bhagavad-Gita as there is factually no contradiction.
According to the Nirukti, or the Vedic dictionary, samkya means that which describes phenomena in detail, and samkya refers to that philosophy which describes the real nature of the soul. And yoga involves controlling the senses. Arjuna's proposal not to fight was based on sense gratification. Forgetting his prime duty, he wanted to cease fighting because he thought that by not killing his relatives and kinsmen he would be happier than by enjoying the kingdom by conquering his cousins and brothers, the sons of Dhrtarashtra. In both ways, the basic principles were for sense gratification. Happiness derived from conquering them and happiness derived by seeing kinsmen alive are both on the basis of personal sense gratification, for there is a sacrifice of wisdom and duty. Krishna, therefore, wanted to explain to Arjuna that by killing the body of his grandfather he would not be killing the soul proper, and He explained that all individual persons, including the Lord Himself, are eternal individuals; they were individuals in the past, they are individuals in the present, and they will continue to remain individuals in the future, because all of us are individual souls eternally, and we simply change our bodily dress in different manners. But, actually, we keep our individuality even after liberation from the bondage of material dress. An analytical study of the soul and the body has been very graphically explained by Lord Krishna.
And this descriptive knowledge of the soul and the body from different angles of vision has been described here as samkya, in terms of the Nirukti dictionary. This samkya has nothing to do with the samkya philosophy of the atheist Kapila. Long before the imposter Kapila's samkya, the samkya philosophy was expounded in the Srimad-Bhagavatham by the true Lord Kapila, the incarnation of Lord Krishna, who explained it to His mother, Devahuti. It is clearly explained by Him that the Puruṣa, or the Supreme Lord, is active and that He creates by looking over the prakrti. This is accepted in the Vedas and in the Gita. The description in the Vedas indicates that the Lord glanced over the prakṛti, or nature, and impregnated it with atomic individuals souls. All these individuals are working in the material world for sense gratification, and under the spell of material energy they are thinking of being enjoyers. This mentality is dragged to the last point of liberation when the living entity wants to become one with the Lord. This is the last snare of maya or sense gratificatory illusion, and it is only after many, many births of such sense gratificatory activities that a great soul surrenders unto Vāsudeva, Lord Krishna, thereby fulfilling the search after the ultimate truth.
Arjuna has already accepted Krishna as his spiritual master by surrendering himself unto Him: (prapannam). Consequently, Krishna will now tell him about the working process in buddhi-yoga, or karma-yogam, or in other words, the practice of devotional service only for the sense gratification of the Lord. This buddhi-yogam is clearly explained in Chapter-10, slokam-10, as being direct communion with the Lord, who is sitting as Paramatma in everyone's heart. But such communion does not take place without devotional service. One who is therefore situated in devotional or transcendental loving service to the Lord, or, in other words, in Krishna consciousness, attains to this stage of buddhi-yoga by the special grace of the Lord. The Lord says, therefore, that only to those who are always engaged in devotional service out of transcendental love does He award the pure knowledge of devotion in love. In that way the devotee can reach Him easily in the ever-blissful kingdom of God.
Thus the buddhi-yogam mentioned in this slokam is the devotional service of the Lord, and the word samkya mentioned herein has nothing to do with the atheistic samkya-yoga enunciated by the impostor Kapila. One should not, therefore, misunderstand that the samkya-yogam mentioned herein has any connection with the atheistic samkya. Nor did that philosophy have any influence during that time; nor would Lord Krishna care to mention such godless philosophical speculations. Real samkya philosophy is described by Lord Kapila in the Srīmad-Bhagavatham, but even that samkya has nothing to do with the current topics. Here, samkya means analytical description of the body and the soul. Lord Krishna made an analytical description of the soul just to bring Arjuna to the point of buddhi-yogam, or bhakti-yogam. Therefore, Lord Krishna's samkya and Lord Kapila's samkya, as described in the Bhagavatham; are one and the same. They are all bhakti-yogam. He said, therefore, that only the less intelligent class of men make a distinction between samkya-yogam and bhakti-yogam.
To be continued ...