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Gita : Ch-5. Slo-6.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-6. ( Unless one is engaged in the devotional service of the Lord, mere renunciation of activities cannot make one happy. The sages, purified by works of devotion, achieve the Supreme without delay.)

Sannyasastu  mahabaho  duhkhamaptumayogatah,

yogayukto  munibrahma  nacirenadhigacchati.

 mahabaho  =  hey  Arjuna!

sannyasas   tu   =  but, the  renounced  order  of  life;

ayogatah  =  without devotional  life  (without, practicing  karma-yogam );

aptum  duhkham  =  very  difficul  to  attain  ( to be afflicted   with   distress );

yogayuktah  munih  =  the  seeker  who  gained  inner  ( Atma ) purity  through  karma-yogam  thereafter proceeds sanyasam;

nacirena  =  soon  ( at   great   speed ) ;

brhm  adhigacchati  =  attains  a  place  in  brahmam  ( dissolve   in   brahmam   ) (  joins   paramatma  ).


Lord Krishna is reconfirming that renunciation is advisable for equanimity of mind for without it the possibility of moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence will not manifest. The desire for sense objects and the motivation for rewards only leads to misery. Moksa itself is should be the goal of all endeavours as all other goals are of little importance as they are material and transitory and in one's possession for only a limited time. The Padma Purana states: That except for the goal of moksa all other goals are not even worthy of consideration. When an effort is able to bestow superior results, the bestowal of inferior results is of no consequence. The primary effect of equanimity is renunciation thus the word munir is given meaning one who has renounced. Thus it is said that they alone are known as renunciates who are devoid of desire and anger.

The means of moksa or liberation is said to be the state of equanimity and its effect is renunciation. That which is always first offered to the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord for His pleasure is true renunciation and no other forms of renunciation are commendable. In the Agni Purana is stated: That without renouncing the desire of rewards for one's actions whatever one might offer unto the Supreme Lord has no merit and the rewards received from all forms of renunciation contrary for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord are similar to the pleasures of hell. Hence it has been declared what is called renunciation know that to be equanimity. Since equanimity has been clarified to be of such paramount importance there is no need to emphasise it further.

The question may be asked that if the path of karma yoga or prescibed Vedic activities without desiring rewards is anyway realised through the renunciation of action then why not start with renunciation of action in the beginning. To alleviate this doubt Lord Krishna replies that without karma yoga it is impossible to achieve purity of mind and in the absence of a pure mind it is very difficult and even perilous as the chance of disturbance and agitation are prevalent. Whereas the purified mind of the munir or elevated sage endowed with equanimity who practices karma yoga very soon perceives the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and achieves atma tattva or realisation of the soul as well.

Lord Krishna affirms that the aspirant who performs renunciation of the rewards of actions and the aspirant who practices jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge, for both of them atma tattva or realisation of the soul is difficult to achieve without the help of karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities without desire for rewards. The compound words yoga-yuktah is one who has achieved communion with the ultimate consciousness by karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities without attachment. The word munir or sagacious is one who is focused on meditating on the atma or soul. Such a muni easily traverses the path of karma yoga receiving atma tattva or realisation of the soul as well as realisation of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. But the person who is inclined to perform jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge finds this path extremely difficult and hard to maintain. Because of this it takes an exceptionally long time to attain the atma by this discipline.

The question may be raised that if persons practising karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities without desiring rewards have anyway to achieve atma tattva or realisation of the soul through renunciation it would be better to renounce actions right from the start. To alleviate this question Lord Krishna advises that it is very difficult and perilous to attempt this without performing karma yoga without desire for rewards beforehand because the mind will not have been purified. Contrarily the munir or elevated sage devoted to actions devoid of ego easily purifies their mind and realises the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence quickly in the same lifetime. This is why it is iterated that karma yoga is superior to renunciation of action because it can not be maintained without first performing karma yoga. That is why it is said by the author of the Varttika that: One even sees the minds of sannyasins or complete renunciates in abnegation agitated by material desirous and are externalised with thoughts polluted by contact with material nature, becoming careless, malicious, and quarrelsome.

To be continued  ...


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …