Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )
Slokam-5. ( One who knows that the position reached by means of renunciation can also be attained by works in devotional service and who therefore sees that the path of works and the path of renunciation are one, sees things as they are. )
Yat samkhyaih prapyate sthanam tadyogairapi gamyate,
ekam samkhyam ca yogam ca pasyati sa pasyati.
samkhyaih = what samkhya philosophy;
yat sthanam prapyate = declares, that place ( lakshyam is achieved );
tat yogai api gamyate = that itself yogies also attain;
samkhyam ca yogam ca = samkyam and yaga;
ekam yah pasyati = One who sees ( the above two ) as one;
sah pasyati = he ( is the only one ) actually sees.
The real purpose of philosophical research is to find the ultimate goal of life. Since the ultimate goal of life is self-realization, there is no difference between the conclusions reached by the two processes. By samkhya philosophical research one comes to the conclusion that a living entity is not a part and parcel of the material world, but of the supreme spirit whole. Consequently, the spirit soul has nothing to do with the material world; his actions must be in some relation with the Supreme. When he acts in consciousness, he is actually in his constitutional position. In the first process of samkhya, one has to become detached from matter, and in the devotional yoga process one has to attach himself to the work of the Lord. Factually, both processes are the same, although superficially one process appears to involve detachment and the other process appears to involve attachment. However, detachment from matter and attachment to the Lord are one and the same. One who can see this sees things as they are.
Both invariably lead to the same result because due to performing actions with spiritual intelligence one achieves the same goal of atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Therefore even renunciates with spiritual wisdom should perform prescribed Vedic activities and grihastas or householders should cultivate knowledge of the resplendent Supreme Lord. Without spiritual intelligence one's actions can never be properly established. Whereas performance of activities in spiritual intelligence without desire of rewards automatically leads one to renunciation. The person who performs actions with renunciation offering the results to the Supreme Lord attains the eternal Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. This blessed person should propitiate the Brahman in its more advanced and personal avatar manifestation or incarnations such as Rama or Buddha and expansions such as Vishnu or Vasudeva; both categories which emanate from the Supreme Lord Krishna. The renunciate should offer propitiation by manasa or mentally offering flowers and meditating on the pranava or the primordial mantra OM. Moksa or liberation is assured for the desire free performers of prescribed Vedic activities, those firmly established in renunciation and those cognisant of the eternal Brahman. But even among these there is more bliss and satisfaction for those who perform actions to please the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His Vedic authorised avatar incarnations and expansions. Performance of prescribed Vedic activities without knowledge of Lord Krishna and His avatars is not laudable or commendable. Therefore only those actions performed in knowledge of Him are known to be actions performed in renunciation. Such actions as are performed by renunciates is called karma or actions based on spiritual intelligence. Kar is understood as action and ma is understood as wisdom. Thus even the grihastas or householders with wives and children and responsibility can also perform actions in renunciation if they possess this wisdom or spiritual intelligence. Thus there is no difference between renunciation and karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities, if the actions are performed as a matter of duty with no desire for the rewards of the action. In the Vyasa Smriti it states that the distinction between a grihasta following karma yoga without desires and an ascetic renunciate without desire except for the regulations and constraints on the activities accepted by each.
Lord Krishna now clarifies specifically that atma tattva or realisation of the soul is the result and that persons who practice renunciation of actions attains this same result as those that practice prescribed Vedic activities without desire for reward and thus for one who sees this similarity of result sees that both paths are actually one. The word yoga meaning the science if the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness denotes by the suffix api meaning also of one who is a practitioner of yoga.
The same result stated in the previous verse is atma tattva or realisation of the soul. This is achieved by both the follower of karma yoga or the performers of prescribed Vedic activities without attachment to the rewards as well as the follower who performs renunciation of actions to the Supreme Lord both attain the result of atma tattva. Thus one who sees by careful analysis that because both paths yield the same fruit they are actually the same is situated in true knowledge.
The renunciates are followers of jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge but the same goal is achieved by them upon realisation as the goal achieved by the followers of karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities upon realisation. Lord Krishna is stating that one who comprehends that either of the methods leads to the same result is one who is in correct knowledge and such a person has spiritual intelligence.
To be continued ....