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Gita : Ch-8. Slo-21.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-8. ( Akshara-brahma-yogam)

Slokam- 21. (  That  unmanifest  is  described  as  imperishable   and  proclaimed   to  be  the  Supreme  goal;  having  reached,  never  returns  to  the  material  existence;  that  is  'My  Supreme  Abode'.    

avyaktokshara    ityuktah    tamahuh   paramam   gatim,

yam    prapya    na   nivartante    taddhama    paramam    mama.

avyaktah   =   unmanifested;

akshara   ity    uktah   =   thus   said,   infallible;

tam   =   that   which;

paramam   gatim   ahuh   =   (is)   said  to  be  the  Supreme   Goal   (  known   as  ultimate   destination );

yam   prapya   =   gaining   that   which;

na   nivartante   =   never   comes   back   (  never   returns );

tat   mama   paramam   dhama   =   that    Supreme    abode   ( is )  "Mine".  

The avyakta the unmanifest and aksara the indestructible is the resplendent Supreme Lord, Krishna Himself, upon whom attaining there is no more returning to samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.

The Garuda Purana states: The avyakta is the Supreme Lord Himself.

It shows the use of the word dhama or abode as also denoting the resplendent form of the Supreme Lord.

Showing that the resplendent Supreme Lord's form and abode are both indicated such are the confidential meanings understood by those of spiritual wisdom.

Lord Krishna now gives the evidence for His avyakta or unmanifest being aksara or imperishable having neither birth or destruction and impossible to be perceived by the mind and senses.

The Mundaka Upanisad I.I.VII states :

Similarly from the aksara this creation comes into being.

The aksara is declared to be paramam gatim the supreme goal of human existence and the ultimate destination.

The Katha Upanisad III.XI states :

There is nothing higher than the Purusha.

He is the ultimate reality and the paramam gatim.

The proof of it being the supreme goal is verified by the words na nivarttante meaning one never returns again to the material worldsonce they attain Lord Krishna's supreme dhama or abode.

The six causative case by the word mama meaning my is used in the sense of identity as when one states Rahu's head which is all that remains of Rahu, it means only that. Therefore Lord Krishna, Himself is the paramam gatim and no other.

This avyakta or unmanifest is beyond the perception of the mind and senses and is aksara or indestructible and contains the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence.

In the second chapter it was revealed that the atma or soul is indestructible as well.

But aksara is known by those knowledgeable of the Vedic scriptures to be paramount, higher than the atma, the goal of the atma as verified in the Katha Upanisad I.II.XXIII  :

That the realised eternal soul is the Supreme Lords abode.

The unrealised soul tainted by association with prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence.

But His presence as the witness in the hearts of all living beings is to keep them always connected to Him, for the Brihadaranyaka Upanisad III:VII,XXII states:
The Supreme Being has established Himself in the heart of all living entities.

The same scripture in III.III.VII states:

That paramatma the supreme soul which resides in the heart of all living entities is different from the individual atma or soul; yet the atma knows Hin not, He whose abode is the atma.

It is the Supreme Lord who is installed in the hearts of all beings as the witness of all thoughts and actions.

Attaining Him the individual atma is permanently divested of prakriti and they never return to the worlds of mortals as the cycle of birth and death is terminated.
The purport is that atma tattva or realisation of the soul is very exalted but the paramam gatim or supreme goal is to attain the Supreme Lord Krishna in His dhama or abode and associate eternally with Him.

Lord Krishna now reveals His superior conscious avyakta or unmanifest which is different in principle and substance then the unconscious avyakta or unmanifest of Brahma which is non-intelligent and operates according to set parameters.

Lord Krishna's superior avyakta is characterised by eternality due to its possession atma tattva or soul realisation.

Thus it is also characterised by jnana or consciousness.

Avyakta is also known as indistinct because it beyond any perceptive faculty of the mind or senses to cognise it as a perceivable reality.

The purport is that avyakta is a principle of self-consciousness and as such is completely unique in its nature.

The word sanatanah meaning eternal because His supreior avyakta is not subject to combination and aggregation or resolution and disintegration and never disperses or dissipates when all the material elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether in there rudimental forms and derivative forms dissolve away although His superior avyakta abides within them.

This is why the Vedic scriptures call it avyakta or indistinct as well as aksara or indestructible.

Those steeped in the wisdom of the Vedic scriptures have declared that this is the paramam gatim or supreme exalted goal to be achieved.

Lord Krishna previously mentioned aksara in verse three of this chapter and will later mention it again in chapters XII.III and XV.XVI.

The superior state of avyakta is where atma tattva or soul realisation abounds and when once reached immediately precludes forever the subjection to union with matter again as there is no more rebirth for reincarnation has been terminated.

Lord Krishna specifies their destination with the words dhama paramam mama meaning His supreme personal abode of eternity, knowledge and bliss where all things reciprocate fully with Him and is the abode of the liberated beings.

The word dhama also denotes luminosity as in the light of consciousness which is the primary attribute of the atma or soul.

Thus Lord Krishna is indicating His paramam dhama as non-different from the infinite consciousness of the atma in contrast to the limited state of consciousness one possesses who is oblivious to the atma due to being deluded by the illusory material energy known as maya and cherishing the association of the senses with sense objects.

The other avyakta where resides praktiti or the material substratum which contains all living entities and which is perishable is controlled by Lord Krishna as well through His manifestation as the eternal atma or soul within the etheric heart of all created beings throughout all existence.

This is the abode of the non-liberated beings.

From the superior avyakta there is no return to samsara the cycle of birth and death.

The next Slokam will show how the goal of the jnani or knower of the Supreme Lord is the most sublime state of consciousness, more exalted than any other.

To be continued  ...


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …