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Gita : Ch-4. Slo-28.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-28. (  There are others who, enlightened by sacrificing their material possessions in severe austerities, take strict vows and practice the yoga of eightfold mysticism, and others study the Vedas for the advancement of transcendental knowledge. )

Dravyayajnastapoyajna   yogayajnastathapare,

svadhyayajnanayajnasca   yatayah  samsitavratah.

tatha  apare  =  apart  from  these;

dravya-yajnah  =  sacrificing  one's  possessions;

tapo-yajnah  =  sacrifice  in  austerities;

yoga-yajnah  =  sacrifice  in  eightfold  mysticism;

svadhyaya-jnana-yajnah  =  sacrifice in the study of  the scriptures and  also sacrifice in  advancement of transcendental   knowledge;

samsita-vratah  =  taken  to  strict  vows;

yatayah  =  enlightened.

Here Lord Krishna reveals others who earn money honestly and donate funds to qualified Vaisnavas and Brahmins to perform yagna or offering of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord. They also offer foodstuffs to feed all the guests at the Supreme Lord's festivals. They bear the expense of building temples to the Supreme Lord Krishna or His authorised incarnations as well. This is known as arthayagna. Some perform austerities such as special fasting during the time which corresponds from amavasya or the new moon to purnima or the full moon and back again to amavasya. Others perform yagna by practicing the eight-fold yoga system such as yama or forbearance, niyama or restraint, asanas or postures, pranayama or breathing exercises, pratyahara or withdrawal, dharana or focused attention and samadhi or complete absorption in meditation. Others strive by observing austere vows, others perform yagna by intense study of the Vedic scriptures.

Those who donate artha or wealth for Vedic festivals and rituals also perform yagnas or offerings of worship. Those who perform tapasya or austerities as penance such as fasting for the propitiation of the Supreme Lord also are considered to be offering oblations in yagna. When such austere penance's are offered as propitiation to the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence, the penance itself becomes the sacrificial fire. Such an offering is spiritualised by the Brahman and is an offering in wisdom. Offering in wisdom is to attain the realisation that all knowledge and all propensities is ultimately for the realisation of the atma or soul which gives direct communion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. There is a more profound meaning to the word dravya which normally means donations and that is in reference to the nine dravya's that compose the physical body being earth, fire, water, air, ether, the senses, the mind, the intellect and the soul. Offering one's everything is also considered offering all one's possessions and superior to mere wealth. The great sage Yagnavalkya has echoed this by his statement in the Brihadaranya Upanisad II.II.V that there is no hope for moksa or liberation through wealth.

There are some perform especially wealthy and opulent yagnas or offerings and worship known as artha yagnas. By this method they earn money honesty and donate it for temple worship and for articles of worship. Others feed the poor or bear the expenses of feeding everyone at festivals of the Supreme Lord and His incarnations. Others have Brahmins perform Yagas and Homas or special ceremonies for birth and weddings and death . All these are known as artha yagnas. Others betake themselves to tapasaya yagnas or expiatory penances and strict austerities such as fasting. Still others resort to yoga yagnas or the communion of the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness following the prescribed Vedic injunctions. The communion referred to here is the individual communing by pilgrimage to holy places such as Kurukshetra, to holy rivers like the Ganges, to holy tirthas like Jagannatha Puri, to holy birthplaces like Lord Krishna's in Mathura. This is what is meant by yoga yagnas. Others exclusively perform svadhyaya yagna or the study of the Vedic scriptures. Others practice jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge and contemplate and reflect on the purport of the Vedic scriptures to better understand them. The word yatayah means diligent and refers to yatis or renunciates who assiduously persevere to accomplish all that they vow to spiritually undertake. The compound word samsita-vratah means they who have firm resolve and fixed determination and refers to the yatis.

 There are others who unable to perform austerities themselves give charity and feed all the guests at the festivals of the Supreme Lord and also give donations to the twice born Vaisnavas and Brahmins to perform yagnas or offerings of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord. These practitioners are known as arthayagnas. Yoga is the science of the individual consciousness in communion with the ultimate consciousness. In this state the modifications of the mind are totally controlled. Those who practice this are called yogayagnas. Others practice intense study of the Vedic scriptures by analysing the purport and contemplating its meaning. Then there are those who persevere of unbreakable vows who are never deterred.

To be continued  ...


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …