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Gita : Ch-4. Slo-25.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-25. ( Karma-yogis following the path of yoga by actions engage in worship offering sacrifices to the demigods only; Jnana-yogis worship perfectly by invoking offerings of sacrifice into the homagni of Ultimat Truth ( Brahmam ), as sacrifice itself. )

daivamevapare  yajnam  yoginah  paryupasate,

brahmagnavapare  yajnam  yajnenaivopajuhvati.

apare  yoginah  =  some  other  yogies  ( Saints );

daivam  yajnam  eva  =  " Daivayajnam" only;

paryupasate  =   following  /  practicing  /worshipping;

apare  =  some  others;

brahmagnav  =  in  the   fire  of  brahmam;

yajnena  eva  =  with  yajnam  only  (with  intense  way  of   self-dedication /surrendering  mode);

yjnam  =  yajnam  itself  ( own  nature  / individuality );

upajuhvati  =  do  ahuti  ( worshipping ).

Lord Krishna begins with the word daivam meaning the demi-gods. Karma yogis or those following the path of prescribed Vedic activities being on a lower platform devotedly worship the demigods such as Indra for rainfall and Surya for sunlight and derive the desired results sought. While the jnana yogis those following the path of cultivating knowledge offer all their oblations such as ghee or clarified butter and food grains exclusively into the fire as offerings to the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and this is their yagna or worship to the Supreme.

The ability to see the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence everywhere is factually a potent form of yagna or offerings of worship as propitiation to the Supreme Lord Krishnas. This type of yagna is superior to all other yagnas. In order to show its superiority; the various sacrifices which are methods to attain this knowledge are given in descending order of importance in the next eight verses. Those yagnas in which demi-gods like Indra and Varuna are worshipped are called Daiva- Yagnas. The word eva meaning only shows that Indra and the demi-gods are not viewed as being Brahman. The karma yogis or those performing actions for specific rewards worship the demigods fastidiously. The jnana yogis or those cultivating Vedic knowledge offer the sacrifice back to the Brahman by means of that very sacrifice and dissolve all actions into the Brahman by the sacrifice of spiritual intelligence.

In this way Lord Krishna is presenting the results one receives while being continuously immersed in the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence while performing every action as yagna or offering and propitiation to the Supreme Lord. To show the superiority of this yagna over all others Lord Krishna presents various types of yagnas in by different yogis or those striving to have their individual consciousness in communion with the ultimate consciousness, in the next eight verses. Here worship of the demigods such as Indra and Surya for the desire of material results is done by yogis of little knowledge. Others offer oblations of ghee or clarified butter and grains into the fire as offerings to the Brahman but they see only the fire as a form of the Brahman and not the performer, the offerings and utensils connected with the yagna. This shows that these yogis are on a lower platform than those yogis referred to in the previous verse who see everything connected to the act of yagna as part of the Brahman.  

To be continued  ....


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …