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Gita : Ch-4. Slo-16.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-4. ( Jnana-karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-16. (  Even   the  scholors   are  confused   in  this  mater  of  what  is  action  and  what  is  inaction.  I  shall  explain   to  you  about  this,  knowing  which   is  what, you  shall  be  liberated  from  all  worldly  sufferings. )

kim  karma   kimakarmeti  kavayopyatra  mohitah,

tatte  karma  pravakshyami  yatjjnatva  mokshyasesubhat.

karma   kim  akarma  kim  =  what  is  karma,  ( action )  and  what  is  akarma  ( inaction );

iti  atra  =   to  make  decition  upon  the  above;

kavayah  api  mohitah  =  even  scholors  (who  are  tatva-dharsi-s )   struggle (to  decide );

yat  jjnatva  =  knowing  which  is  what;

asubhat  =  from   the  worldly  ill   fortunes;

mokashyase  =  you  be  liberated;

tat  karma  =  that  karma  itself;

te  pravakshyami  =  I  shall  explain  to  you.

( From  here  onwards  members  be  closely  listen  Lord's  words )

Arjuna might be thinking that if everyone has to perform actions anyway then he will do it because the Lord advised it so; but he may have doubts about his ability to perform actions in the manner that was performed by the great beings of yore. To clarify this Lord Krishna confirms that even those of discrimination and intelligence are bewildered by the subtleties of action and inaction. The actions performed by an aspirant for moksa or liberation are completely different from those seeking rewards for their actions. Because the intricacies of action and inaction are difficult to comprehend Lord Krishna now promises to explain it definitively, therefore by knowing and performing actions properly one will be freed from the disease of materialism which binds one tightly to samsara the cycle of birth and death.

In the three previous slokam-s Lord Krishna talks about performance of actions, now He promises to gives a detailed explanation that will dispel delusion about the nature of actions.

Here it is inferred that action should be performed under the guidance of those situated in jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge, who are knowers of the ultimate truth and such action should not be based on what is popular at the moment in society. Even men of discrimination can be beguiled by the subtle nature of what is action and what is inaction. So now in the next verse Lord Krishna will expound the intricacies of action and inaction that by performing one will be free of the disease of transmigrated existence and will attain moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Exactly what is the nature of karma or action as performed by the aspirants treading the path to moksa or liberation from material existence and what also is akarma or inaction? By the term akarma is inferred true knowledge relating to the doer which is the atma or soul. What is the action which needs to be performed and what is the wisdom of inaction that is involved in such an action? Even persons of discrimination and knowledge are bewildered in this matter and confused do not understand this differences properly. Lord Krishna now promises to dispel all delusion in the intricacies of this subject. What is the purpose of performing actions as a matter of duty? The satisfaction consists in the knowledge of knowing why the duty is to be discharged. The knower is the person who performs works aspiring for moksa. The ignorant is one who performs work for sense gratification. The former performs work without egoism while the latter performs works full of egoism. The former is eligible for liberation the latter is eligible for bondage. Why this is so difficult to understand is explained in the next slokam.

To be continued  ....


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …