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Gita : Ch-3. Slo-20.

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-3. ( Karma-yogam )

Slokam-20. ( Even kings like Janaka and others attained the perfectional stage by performance of prescribed duties. Therefore, just for the sake of educating the people in general, you should perform your work. )

Karmanaiva    hi    samsiddhim     asthita     janakadayah,

Lokasangrahamevapi     sampasyan    kartumarhasi.

janakadayah  =  kings  like Janaka  and  others;

karmanah  eva  hi  =  certainly by karmam only;

samsiddhim  asthitah  =  attained the Supreme perfection (abode);

Lokasangraham  eva  api  =  for the  sake of world's benefit too;

sampasyan  =  you consider;

kartum  arhasi =  certainly do karmam.

Here Lord Krishna follows the approved adage of citing previous historical examples such as King Janaka the father of Sita who was Rama's wife. King Janaka by prescribed Vedic activities purified his mind and consciousness and achieved perfection; but after becoming situated in atma-tattva or soul realisation still King Janaka performed prescribed Vedic activities for the purification of the world and felt bliss. So one should not think that after realisation it is not worthy to purify others for the welfare of all created beings as it is still beneficial. Also people seeing such a great king as Janaka performing sacred actions also became inspired to follow his example. To the contrary those wallowing in material nature in the mode of ignorance fail to perform Vedic actions are ruined in this life and the next.. 

For further emphasis to the previous slokam Lord Krishna now gives historical references of men of actions who attained atma-tattva or soul realisation while performing actions. It also infers that by performing prescribed actions of the Vedic scriptures in an unattached manner one gains wisdom. It should not be assumed that actions alone are sufficient without possessing wisdom. King Janaka was reknown throughout Bharata now known as India as a king of great wisdom. He and others were very well established in spiritual intelligence. 

Even in other instances there exists no disparity for the path of atma- tattva. Wherever it has been stated that for liberation visits to sacred rivers and holy tirthas or by leaving one' body in Prayag or by taking bath at Kuruksetra during the solar eclipse. When these places are praised the liberation referred to is solely for the absolution of one's sins and demerits only. Because whenever any of these famous places are mentioned then atma-tattva must be mentioned as well because it is the primary basis for liberation. Without atma-tattva the state of moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death is not possible. Liberation in places like Prayag is recommended because a holy place can greatly assist one in achieving the ultimate attainment; but still the foundation of spiritual wisdom is essential. So the statements eulogising the Ganges and other holy rivers and places are not in any way contradictory to the reality required of achieving atma-tattva for the attainment of moksa. This information has also been confirmed by Vedavyasa in the Narada Purana where it is written that visits to sacred rivers and holy places for the performance of rituals is for the simple minded people and also to attract those who are bewildered; but liberation is possible only by realising the Supreme Lord as Paramatma the supersoul within and not otherwise, there is no other path. Therefore atma-tattva or soul realisation is the only path to moksa and there is no other way possible. 

King Janaka and other great men renowned for their wisdom performed countless prescribed Vedic activities according to their status in society yet still reached perfection in atma-tattva and attained moksa in their lives. Even after attaining moksa they performed Vedic activities for the benefit and welfare of the world and to inspire others to also perform prescribed Vedic actions for the balance and maintenance of the world. For one who is not a person of wisdom such activities performed leads to purification and for one who is a person of wisdom such activities lead to the bliss of pleasing the Supreme Lord and the fulfilment of the bliss of moksham. 

If the counterpoint is posed to the previous verse that desireless unattachment should be performed for the purity of the mind and that when spiritual knowledge arises one may abandon prescribed Vedic activities; because otherwise there will be no chance for liberation to one always engaged in actions as stated in the Mundakaya Upanisad I.II.XII: One will be bound by the very actions they perform. 

In anticipation of such a counterpoint Lord Krishna confirms the authority of previous examples. By referring to King Janaka and by using in the instrumental case the words karmana eva meaning solely by performing actions as given in Panini I:II:LXV it clearly indicates that it is through actions and not by abandoning actions that King Janaka and others like Asvapati achieved the highest goal of moksa or liberation. So one who is knowledgeable of these things must perform their duties to achieve the goal. 

If another counterpoint is posed that a person devoted to spiritual knowledge duly purifies their mind and then attaining atma-tattva or soul realisation is free from rebirth and is liberated; so what is the necessity to perform further prescribed Vedic injunctions. Lord Krishna anticipating this point replies that one should consider the welfare of the people in general and perform prescribed actions to protect and inspire them as well as for the maintenance of world order and the preservation of creation. That is why one should still perform prescribed Vedic activities. 

To be continued  ....


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Gita : Ch-10. Slo-12 & 13.

Srimad  Bhagavad-Gita :

Chapter-10. ( Vibhuthi-yogam)

Slokam-12 & 13.


arjuna uvaca :

param  brahma  param  dhama  pavitram  paramam  bhavan,

purusham  sasvatam  divyam  adidevamajam  vibhum.

arjuna uvaca :  arjuna  said;

param  brahma  param  dhama  =  supreme  brahmam  and  supreme  place  to  attain (sustenance );

paramam  pavitram  bhavan  =  supreme  and  purest  are  yourself;

tvam  sasvatam  divyam  purusham  =  you  are  the  divine  permanent purushan;

adi-devam-ajam  =  very  first  supreme  lord  and  unborn ( svayambhu );

vibhum  =  all  pervading,  ( said )  as;


ahustvamrshayah  sarve  devarshirnaradastatha,

asito  devalo  vyasah  svayam  caiva  bravishi me.

sarve  rshayah  =  all  rishi-s  and;

tatha  devarshih  naradah  =  also  deva  rishi  narada  and;

asitah  devalah  =  asitan  and  devala;

vyasah  ahu  =  and  vyasa  too  say;

svayam  eva  =  now  you  are  your  own;

me  bravishi  ca  =  also  explained,  ( the  above,  that  way said ) to  me.


Gita : Ch-13. Slo-13. Discussion-3.

Bhagavad-Gita :
Chapter-13. ( Kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaga-yogam )

Slokam-13. ( I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahmam, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.)

jneyam  yat  tat  pravakshyami  yatjnatvamrtamasnute,

anadimat  param   brahma  na  sat  tannasaducyate.

jneyam  yat  =   (which )  the  one  which  is  to  be  known  ( knowledge );
yat  jnatva  =  ( if  )  that  one  is  known ( knowing  that  knowledge );
amrtam  asnute  =  results  in  gaining  amrtatvm;
tat  pravakshyami  =  that  I  will  tell ( teach )  you;
anadimat  param   brahma  =  that  is  the  beginningless   Para-brahmam  ( the Supreme  abode ) ;
tat  sat  na  asat  na  =  that  either  sat ( cause ) or  asat  ( effect );
ucyate  =  cannot  be  said ( called ).

Discussion -3.
The use of the term innermost self to refer to the brahman does not create any contradiction bec…

Gita : Ch-5. Slo-27 & 28.

(Very important slokam-s, Here Lord narrates the details of meditation)

Srimad Bhagavad-Gita:

Chapter-5. ( Karma-sanyasa-yogam )

Slokam-27 & 28. (  Shutting out all external sense objects, keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils—thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence, the tranecendentalist becomes free from desire, fear and anger. One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.)


Sparsan    krtva    bahirbahyan     cakshuscaivantare     bhruvoh,

pranapanau    samau    krtva     nasabhyantaracarinau.

( 28 ).

Yatendriyamanobuddhiah    muniahmokshaparayanah,

vigatecchabhayakrodhah    yah    sada     mukta    eva    sah.


bahirbahyan     sparsan  =  unnecessary   external    sense     objects,    such    as    sound, etc.;

bahiah    krtva  =   do    not    allowing    to   enter    within,   by    determination,   setting   them    outside;

cakshuah    ca  =  keeping …